Alistair Nesbitt, Director of Climate and Viticulture Services, Climate Wine Consulting Ltd, England
Vineyard hectarage (ha) in England and Wales has increased almost 250% in the last 10-years to just over 2500 hectares, with 5.9m bottles produced in 2017 and a 31% increase in sales between 2015–2017. Sector expansion is being driven by warming growing season temperatures, a recent (2004) change in dominant vine varieties, evidence of very high quality sparkling wine production, and upskilling of the sector-wide workforce. Yet despite continued investment and wines of international acclaim wine grape yields and sector resilience to weather and climate risks remain low. Positioned beyond the ‘traditional’ latitudinal boundaries (30–50oN) for commercial viticulture, vineyards in England and Wales are in a marginal climate and subject to high seasonal weather variability and acute weather events. Where vineyards are sub-optimally located commercial viticulture viability could be threatened. Additionally, for many producers the venture into commercial viticulture and wine production in England and Wales is subject to risks regarding high production costs and production models that assume continued current market exposure. However, through structural adaptation and appropriate business and risk planning, opportunities exist for improved resilience to our weather and climate, alternative models of production, increased wine tourism, growth in exports, and longer-term market consolidation. Collectively, and with an absolute focus on wine quality, these opportunities could further establish England and Wales as attractive viticulture investment opportunities and sustainable cool-climate wine producing regions.
Andrew G. Reynolds, Keynote speaker, Professor of Viticulture, Cool Climate Oenology & Viticulture Institute, Brock University, Canada
Cool climate from a viticultural standpoint has been defined beginning with seasonal growing degree days (GDD; Amerine and Winkler 1944), mean temperature of the warmest month (Becker 1984), Latitude-Temperature index (Jackson and Cherry 1988), alpha vs. beta zones (Jackson and Lombard 1993), and daily GDD between veraison and harvest (Reynolds 1997). However, what is a “cold climate” with respect to viticulture? For purposes of this presentation, we define a cold climate as one at the lowest extreme range of the cool climate regions, which may also experience cold winters as well. These include Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia in Canada, and Nebraska, North Dakota, and Minnesota in the U.S., all of which routinely experience winters with temperatures < -20C. Other regions with milder winter climates include Denmark, Sweden, Belgium, Netherlands, Poland, and the Baltic countries. Cold climate wine styles are defined by several viticultural and enological decisions; first and foremost of these is choice of cultivar, followed by winemaking decisions and styles, including unique products such as sparkling wines, icewines, and Appassimento-style wines. Zones experiencing cold winters are obliged to plant cold-tolerant interspecific hybrids (e.g. Frontenac, Marquette, La Crescent), whereas those with winter temperatures > -15C could succeed with early-maturing Vitis vinifera intraspecific hybrids such as Ortega, Siegerrebe, and Schönberger. Regions with periods during the winter < -8C could produce icewines. Appassimento-style wines can be produced through drying grapes in greenhouses, tobacco kilns, traditionally on straw mats in barns, or on the vine.
Anja Antes, Antes Weinbau Service GmbH, Owner, Heppenheim, Germany
Anja Antes studied Viticulture and Oenology in Geisenheim from 2010 to 2014 and had work experiences in wineries and nurseries in New Zealand and Portugal. Now she is working in the family company – a wine-growing and grafting company in Germany founded in 1952. The family is committed to providing appropriate vines to winegrowers in colder winegrowing regions like Poland, Sweden, Netherlands, Great Britain, Lithuania, Ukraine, Czech Republic, northern Germany and Denmark. The Service includes the complete procedure from consulting (rootstocks, varieties, soil analysis, plant protection) up to planting and installation of trellising system.
ANTES Weinbau Service GmbH is a family owned wine-growing and grafting company in Germany. The family is committed to providing winegrowers in colder winegrowing regions like Poland, Sweden, Netherlands, Great Britain, Lithuania, Ukraine, Czech Republic, northern Germany and Denmark. The Service includes the complete procedure from consulting (rootstocks, varieties, soil analysis, plant protection) up to planting and installation of trellising system. The company has own vineyards with more than 400 varieties, rootstocks and clones in comparison to each other. In her topic Anja will present simple and concise a few varieties, new crossings, own experiences and experiences of customers in these winegrowing regions in the last decade.
Anna Mårtensson, Professor, University of Agriculture Ultuna, Sweden
Anna Mårtensson is professor at the Swedish university of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden. She has published articles related to the potential to successfully cultivate wine in Sweden and the use of plant growth promoting bacteria in vineyards. She initiated and was responsible for a wine cultivation course at the university during almost ten years.
Several of her students have conducting their thesis works related to various issues within the wine trade. She is currently participating in a EU financed project, CORE-ORGANIC, ReSolve, with partners in Turkey, Slovenia, Bordeaux, Toscana and Rioja. Here the aim is to restore organically cultivated and degraded vineyards with various amendments such as organic materials and plant growth promoting consortia.
The environmental impact concerning eutrophication from Swedish vineyards has not yet been evaluated although areas devoted to vineyards are increasing. Here we present nutrient balances for Swedish vineyards. When comparing the deficits and surpluses from the vineyards to balances resulting from comparable land use (arable land and pastures) the vineyard surpluses are minor. Current fertilizing strategies of Swedish vineyards can therefore not be said to be raise environmental concerns from a eutrophication perspective.
Antony B. Shaw, Canada
The freeze damage is a major determinant of the spatial distribution of perennial fruit and vine crops in Canada and for that matter, in most of the mid-latitude and sub-tropical regions of the world. But warmer winter and spring temperatures in a climate change scenario are likely to bring mixed benefits. Warmer and longer growing seasons are projected, especially in the cooler wine regions. However, freeze damage could actually increase in wine some regions due to reduced cold hardening during the fall, an increase in the frequency of winter freeze-thaw events, and a decrease in protective snow cover. In particular, an increase in winter free-thaw events would decrease the hardiness of the vines, and increase their sensitivity to cold temperatures in late winter. Also damaging to dormant vines are temperature fluctuations within the winter season (repeated freeze-thaw cycles). Moreover, an accelerated increase in temperature in the early stages of (bud-break) could also significantly advance the phenological stages of the vine, making them more susceptible to freeze damage. Determining how climatic change could alter the temperatures in the winter and the transitional spring and fall periods in Canada’s main wine regions and consequently the phenological phases of the vine, is crucial in sustaining the production of quality grapes and wines and the implementation of appropriate mitigation and adaptation strategies.
This study examines the daily historical climatic data from the 1970 to 2017 period for representative locations in Canada’s principal wine regions and applies statistical techniques to determine long-term trends and variability of key viticulture and climatic indices. The transitional periods between April to May and September to November along with December to March winter are analyzed to determine how climate change has affected the onset and retreat of the growing season and the frequency of damaging freeze events. Also assessed are the implications for wine quality and appropriate adaptive strategies with respect to viticulture practices, suitable grape varieties and risk reduction technologies.
Astrid Buica, Ph.D. (Chemistry), Department of Viticulture and Oenology, Faculty of AgriSciencesticulture and Oenology Stellenbosch University, South Africa
Yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN), an essential component of the grape-juice matrix, has frequently been identified as a limiting nutrient and, therefore, often suspected as the cause for problematic fermentations. The field of spectroscopy, together with chemometric techniques, is gaining a lot of popularity as it provides easy-to use, rapid and cost-effective means for measurement in complex matrices such as grape juice. This is becoming increasingly relevant as methods currently available for YAN analysis generally require highly trained personnel, are time-consuming, and make use of hazardous and expensive reagents. The possibility of using correlative techniques rather than a direct measurement of the variable makes building robust prediction models on a range of different cultivars a challenge worth pursuing. Using the six major cultivars of South Africa, the ability of five different spectral instruments to accurately predict the YAN concentration of minor cultivars was evaluated. This was done by comparing the RMSEP values of PLS calibration models through test set validation. The instruments included in this comparative study included three different benchtop spectral instruments: WineScan FT120 Basic FTIR (FOSS Analytical), MPA II Multipurpose FT-NIR Analyser (Bruker), ALPHA II FTIR Spectrometer (Bruker), as well as two mobile spectral instruments: MicroNIR (VIAVI Solutions) and the FieldSpec 4 Standard-Res Spectroradiometer (ASD). These instruments work in different regions of the IR spectrum (mid- and near-IR) as well as in different modes (transmission and attenuated total reflectance or ATR). All measurements were done in laboratory conditions and the reference values for YAN levels were obtained with a Konelab Arena 20 analyzer (Thermo Fisher Scientific). Validation results indicated that the instruments using NIR spectroscopy showed the most promising results, but generally all instruments performed adequately for the given prediction task.
The financial support of Winetech, the National Research Foundation and the Department of Viticulture and Oenology at Stellenbosch University.
Carl-Henrik Brogren, Winemaker, Biochemist, microbiologist & enologist, Denmark
In cool climate regions grape maturation is often delayed and incomplete with a high level of malic acid. This lowers the pH-level in the juice, so either malolactic fermentation or de-acidification are needed.
The drawback of de-acidification is removal of tartaric acid, while malolactic fermentation below pH=3.2 often is not successful. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that a novel strain of Oenococcus Oeni, Viniflora® SpartaTM, having a high tolerance to low pH, can initiate malolactic fermentation at pH≥2.9.
The study was performed on Orion grape juice harvested in Denmark, October 2017, in one of the coldest and most humid autumns. Two equal aliquots of 25L freshly destemmed and hydro-pressed Orion juice were fermented into white wine for 4 weeks. No de-acidification but a slight chaptalization was done. The final wine had a pH=2.9, too acidic for a standard malolactic fermentation. Four weeks after ended alcoholic fermentation, one batch was added Viniflora® CH11, acidity resistant at pH≥3.0, the other batch the novel Viniflora® SpartaTM, resistant at pH≥2.9. Samples were collected twice weekly for 3 weeks and analyzed on Winescan (Foss) for the content of malic and lactic acid, plus other parameters. The Viniflora® SpartaTM treatment gave a fast and complete removal of malic acid, while the Viniflora® CH11 strain acted slower and didn’t complete malolactic fermentation within the time span of the experiments. For comparison a batch of 25L Solaris grape juice was deacidified to pH>3.2 and malolactic treated with Vinoferm® Malocid, only active above pH=3.1. Sensory scoring of the white wines indicates that an organoleptic improved aroma profile was obtained after complete malolactic treatment with Viniflora® SpartaTM. De-acidification decreased the tartaric acid content with negative impact on the wine aroma. In conclusion, we recommend malolactic fermentation of high acidic immature grape juice harvested from cool climate cultivars.
Christer Johansson, M.Sc, ITC expert and Vineyard owner, Sweden
Christer has more than 40 years experience from the telecommunication industry, mainly at Ericsson, and more than 10 years of experience from establishing a small Vineyard in Southern Sweden. His objective is to make wine “hand-by-hand end-to-end.
The speech will describe a project that recently has been approved by Swedish Agriculture Department and that will start in August. The objectives of the project are to introduce cheap connected sensors and other measurement tools in the Vineyard to simplify the daily supervision and to introduce artificial intelligence/machine learning to build a knowledge base that can help the Vineyard farmer with the daily decisions about irrigation, disease control, nutritional control, and optimal date for harvest.
Christina Skjöldebrand, Ph.D., Adjoint professor, Lund University, Sweden
Professor in Food Engineering from Lund University and MBA from Göteborg UniversityMember of the organizing committee VitiNord Scandinavia 2018.
Managing Director and owner CFB Creative Future Business AB Part owner, initiator, founder and board member of ViscoSens. Project leader of platform Nordic Light Terroir about development of Swedish wine. Expert coupled to the International centre for circular economy coupled to food production in Bjuv Sweden.
In 2009 we started to build a new platform for the Swedish wine branch. The first years we called it Wine country Sweden but changed the name 2013 and called it “The Nordic Light Terroir platform”. The first years we performed and analysed the need from the wine makers in Sweden and the aim was to establish to establish an innovative competence centre for the wine producing branch in Sweden. We plan to have in 10-15 years an innovative and dynamics local wine- and drinking branch and several producing units with good control of their own value chain. There will be a commercial profitable activity in further development. Outside environmental and its changes – climate changes, environment interest sensory – increased interest for our clime zone – had contributed to a rapid growing branch. In Sweden we have a lot of quality berries and fruits and we want to have fermentation area couple to innovative drinks based on other fruits and berries than traditional grapes I will in my speech tell you about the work and the development of the Nordic Light Terroir platform for Sweden. We have had a couple of workshops with OIV master students to get some help and advice on our development. There is a poster about the results. We have also recently got a project on IoT and AI to increase competitiveness in the fruit berry and wine production. Christer Johansson presented this on Tuesday and we have also started work in an expert group on quality assurance of the wine area in Sweden.
Emilio Gil, Ph.D., Professor, Universitat Politécnica de Catalunya, Spain
Spraying techniques have been undergoing continuous evolution in recent decades. This presentation presents part of the research work carried out in Spain in the field of sensors for characterizing vineyard canopies and monitoring spray drift in order to improve vineyard spraying and make it more sustainable. Some methods and geostatistical procedures for mapping vineyard parameters are proposed, and the development of a variable rate sprayer is described. All these technologies are interesting in terms of adjusting the amount of pesticides applied to the target canopy. Recently developments as app DOSAVIÑA, new developed smart sprayer for variable rate application in vineyard and efforts linked to training of stakeholders (the key point for the success of the process) will be presented.
Ernst Weinman, Staatliches Weinbauinstitut Freiburg, Germany
Mr. Ernst Weinmann, born 1968, made an education as a wine maker and finished his studies in agricultural sience, with the focus on viticulture, at the “University of Hohenheim” (Germany). After his studies he has worked as a consultant at the “Viticultur Consultant Ring Franken” in Bavaria.
Since 2001 he works in Baden-Wuerttemberg. Here he was at the “Regional Counsil Freiburg” and the “Ministry for Agriculture, Food and Consumer Protection” in Stuttgart and reposible for questions regarding to the wine law. Since 2010 he is at the “State Institut for Viticulture and Enology” and responsible for the viticultural research. One section in the first years, among other things, were the attempts for hail protections.
Currently, Ernst Weinmann concentrates on attemts of maturity decelaration and herbicide-free under vine soil cultivation. Since 2015 he ist the temporary head of the department “Resistance and Clone Breeding”. His focus here is on the pyramidising of resistance genes in vines and the development of new clones in the context of the climate change.
Vitis vinifera cultivar Bacchus, a (Silvaner x Riesling) x Müller-Thurgau cross, is the most widely planted cv. for making still wine in the UK. Bacchus, a white grape, is suited to cool-climates where it generally yields well with good sugar levels and moderate acidity.
Flavour profiles of Bacchus wines are characterised by the presence of both terpenes and thiols. Using techniques adapted for Sauvignon blanc and Riesling there are a wide range of opportunities during winemaking to modify wine composition and style. This project has identified, for the first time, key flavour compounds in the grape that affect wine composition and wine style, including α- terpineol, geraniol, linalool, hotrienol, 4- mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one, 3-mercaptohexen-1-ol and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate.
Furthermore, the impact of winemaking options including pre-ferment maceration, yeast strain, ferment temperature and exogenous enzymes on these compounds and their expression in Bacchus wine have been described. Wines were enhanced by maceration, with; higher juice yield, increased yeast assimilable nitrogen, increased polysaccharides and increased pH coupled with decreased acidity. Manipulating ferment conditions increased thiol and terpene levels, while the employment of exogenous enzymes improved terpene levels. Taken together, these results show that careful consideration and application of a range of winemaking techniques can produce high quality cool-climate Bacchus wine.
Fiona L. Kerslake, Ph.D., Tasmanian Institute of Agriculture, University of Tasmania, Australia
Acting Horticulture Center leader Viticulture and Fermentation Research Fellow.
Sparkling wine production has often been referred to as ‘all about the winemaking’, but when winemakers were challenged with making premium quality sparkling wines with grapes from a hot climate, it was conceded it is a much more complex system than first thought. The Tasmanian industry recognised the opportunity to further investigate ways to manipulate fruit and wine composition through a series of vineyard trials, and after a prolonged tirage period of 5 years, the wines resulting from the field trials have been tasted and analysed. This enables a toolkit approach to achieving desired sparkling wine styles through vineyard management by targeting specific attributes which have been quantified.
Fredrik Nilsson, Professor in Packaging logistics, Lund University, Sweden
The wine industry, similar to the whole food industry, has great challenges in becoming sustainable. Besides primary production, logistics and packaging contributes to these challenges. Since 2011 there has been a collaboration between Stellenbosch Univeristy and Lund Univesity in Packaging Logistics development adressing sustainability in the food sector with a number of projects in wine supply chains. The purpose of the presentation is to present a number of methods and tools used in projects carried out in South African wine supply chains to map and evaluate sustainability impacts and develop innovative solutions.
Gerald Rodman, Grapebreeder, USA
Hans J. Rosenfeld, Grape breeder, Norway
Mr. Rosenfield expertise is in vegetable breeding, fruit growing and greenhouse cultivation of grapes. From 1976 to 2002, he ran a market garden, growing vegetables, strawberries and mushrooms. Grape grower and wine maker since 2004, ha has a vineyard of about 2000 m2, with grapes of different varieties for wine making, mostly in greenhouses.
His principal projects is a new winery including bed and breakfast. His family also produces an internationally-acclaimed cheese from milk produced on their farm.
Growing grapes for wine production at latitudes of 60ºN – plus, requires varieties with an extremely short cycle of development. The development of such varieties comprises both red and white varieties, with emphasis on white grapes.
Desirable characteristics for such varieties are:
- Ultra-early ripening at 600-800 Day Degree Celsius
- Loose grape clusters or though grape skin
- Good winter hardiness (-20 ºC and lower)
- Vinifera-like wine, no hybrid taste.
At present time seven new varieties are recommended for trials.
‘Froya’ (Frontanac x Bolero), ripens four weeks earlier than Frontenac, winter hardiness seems to be like that of Frontenac. The wine has strong colour and might have herbaceous character. It should therefore be made with a minimum of skin contact and/or by use of carbonic maceration.
‘Norse Odin’ (Rondo x Bolero), ripens two weeks earlier than Rondo with good winter hardiness. The wine has a light red colour and should be made as rosé wine. No Rondo-taste.
‘Thor’ (Hasanski Sladki x Solaris), ripens early like Hasanski Sladki, and has good winter hardness. The wine has a crisp, acidic taste, no labrusca flavour.
‘Idun’ (open pollinated Froya), weak vegetative growth, very winter hardy. The grapes ripen very early, one week before Solaris. The wine has a pleasant peach flavour, no hybrid taste.
‘Balder’ (open pollinated Bolero), early ripening, very crisp grapes, probably best for table grapes.
‘Sol 2-3-1’, (Solaris x Seyval blanc). The grapes grow on loose clusters which ripen slightly later than Solaris. The grapes have very aromatic flavour. Shoots ripen well off in the autumn. The wine seems to have more flavour than that of Solaris.
‘Fenrir’, (Smugljanka x Jubileinaja Novgoroda). Early ripening, very winter hardy. Pink grapes on loose clusters with little skin colour. The wine is white and has no hybrid flavour.
Harlene Hattermann-Valenti, Asst. Head & Professor, High-Value Crops Specialist, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota, USA
Harlene oversees the grape germplasm enhancement project at NDSU and conducts research and outreach on cold-hardy grapes. Her emphasis is weed science, but most research is production related. Harlene initiated her grape research in 2001 after ND state legislature made commercial wineries possible. Harlene has been involved with the NE1020 (Multi-state Evaluation of Wine Grape Cultivars and Clones) project activities since 2009 and is the ND representative for the 13 state Northern Grapes SCRI grant. She also maintains the NDSU-Grapes listserv with over 200 subscribers and is a member of the board for the North Dakota Grape and Wine Association. Harlene is a Board of Directors member for ASEV-ES.
The primary role of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is to convert grape sugars into alcohol. However, yeast metabolites are also known to influence the sensory attributes of wine through the production of esters, higher alcohols, carbonyl compounds, volatile acids, volatile phenols, and sulfur compounds. Different wine yeasts are also known to affect a wine’s flavor profile because they vary in their production of flavor-active metabolites. Unfortunately, little research has been conducted to evaluate some of the premium yeast strains with new cold-hardy grape introductions. Our research objective was to assess yeast-induced fermentative aroma and taste differences when using ‘Petite Pearl’ and ‘Crimson Pearl’, two full-sib cold-hardy grapes grown in North Dakota. Grapes were harvested from a vineyard south of Fargo for ‘Crimson Pearl’ with post-crush readings of 21% soluble solids, pH of 3.37, 8 g/L total titratable acids and sulfur dioxide concentration of 30 ppm; and the NDSU Horticulture research site for ‘Petite Pearl’ with post-crush readings of 20.6% soluble solids, pH of 3.30, 8 g/L total titratable acids and sulfur dioxide concentration of 35 ppm. Twelve yeasts: 71B, Alchemy, BM4X4, CLOS, D221, D254, ICV GRE, RBS 133, RC 212, and VRB were provided by Scott Laboratories, with the last two yeasts considered native wine strains provided by wineries in California and North Dakota. Fermentations consisted of sequential inoculation of the yeast followed by inoculation of the malolactic bacterial within 24 hr of the initial inoculation. After fermentation was complete, wines were stabilized using metabisulphite and bottled in 750 mL wine bottles. Three replicate wine fermentations were generated per grape and yeast strain. For sensory descriptor characterization, a panel of four wine experts identified aroma and taste descriptors for the 24 wine samples. The intensity of these descriptors along with other sensory attributes were then rated by a 12 person trained panel. First year results on differences in yeast-induced fermentative aromas and taste will be discussed for each wine as descriptors and intensity of each descriptor varied with grape cultivar and yeast strain.
A few investors had to experience that the foundation of a winery requires some different ideas about business and capital requirements. We look into some benchmarks around the establishment of a winery in the new nordic wine culture to minimize unsatisfactory surprises,
As a real study case in the new nordic wine area “Vejrhøj Vingård” (Sealand, Denmark) will be described by some key figures and benchmarks to reflect about the chances and risks in a new wine business located at a very new wine area. Within the conference there will be a visit to the winery.
Jesús Yuste, Ph. D., Agricultural Engineer, Instituto Tecnológico Agrario de Castilla y León, Ctra. Valladolid, Spain
The early leaf removal is a technique that allows to act on the vegetative-productive balance of the vineyard and, in this way, regulate the grape yield. This regulation is a critical aspect for the final quality of grapes, which can be affected through its various components. The response of the vineyard to the early basal leaf removal may depend on the variety and the growing conditions, as in the case of the Verdejo variety subjected to a water regime that is not very limiting, with irrigation contribution.
Throughout the period 2015-2017, the application of an early basal leaf removal or defoliation treatment (D) was studied, removing the first 8 leaves of all shoots in the flowering phase, compared to a control treatment (T), in a water regime with irrigation of 30% ETo applied from the pea-sized state to harvest. The trial was carried out with cv. Verdejo on rootstock 110R, planted in 2006 and conducted in vertical trellis as bilateral Royat cordon, with vine distances of 2.60 m x 1.25 m (3,077 plants/ha). The vineyard is located in Medina del Campo (Valladolid, Spain), within the D.O. Rueda.
The leaf removal produced the reduction of the grape yield, through the decrease of the cluster weight, caused by the reduction of the number of berries per cluster. No clear effect was observed in berry weight, whereas the number of clusters was not affected. The vegetative development was not very affected by early leaf removal, although it showed a tendency to decrease through the weight of pruning wood, in accordance with the shoot weight. The Ravaz index was reduced. The concentration of total soluble solids was clearly favoured by leaf removal, while titratable acidity and tartaric acid showed a variable response according to the year. Malic acid showed a tendency to decrease, but the potassium concentration was generally higher with the early leaf removal.
Jörgen Olofsson, Lund University, Sweden
Juha Karvonen, Ph.D. student, University of Helsinki, Finland
Juha Karvonen, born in 1943, graduated as a Doctor of Medicine and surgery from the University of Oulu in 1978. He began studying viticulture at Napa Valley College in California. After retirement in 2004, he started the master’s degree in wine-growing and marketing in Fachhochschule Eisenstadt in Austria, continued with agriculture studies at the University of Helsinki, and graduated with an MSc in 2009. He started his doctoral studies in viticulture at the University of Helsinki in 2013. Karvonen has written two books dealing with northern viticulture in Finnish and one in English.
Cool climate vineyards with annual snow layers in Europe and Siberia are between the latitudes of N60° and N46°, and in Canada and in the USA they are between N45° and N42°. In these regions, the minimum air temperature may fall between -30°C and -40°C, but snow from 50 cm to 150 cm deep acts as an igloo, insulting and protecting the vines from frost damages. In this study, cool climate wine regions were reviewed. According to Köppen-Geiger’s climate classification for the continental climates, Troy in Hudson Valley and New Berlin in Wisconsin belong to the climate group that experiences a hot summer. Tuusula (Helsinki region), Unterstalten (Canton of Valais), Saint Hippolyte (Quebec) and Bayevsky (Altai Krai, Siberia) belong to the continental climates with warm summers. Ålsgårde (Copenhagen region) belongs to a temperate climate (bordering on continental climates with warm summers). The presented climatic data shows a 30-year’ average. The annual air temperature was highest in Troy (8.9°C) and lowest in Bayevsky (1.6°C), where the snow cover duration was longest at 210 days. In Bayevsky, the annual precipitation was mostly snowfall. In Saint Hippolyte, the annual air temperature was 4.0°C and snow fall was 299 cm. In the remaining localities the annual air temperature was 5.5°C – 8.3°C and the snow cover durations were 102 – 138 days (3.5 – 4.5 months), except in Ålsgårde, where annual snow cover days were much less and snow cover thinner than elsewhere. Snow prevents the soil from freezing, protects its microbiota, and prevents frost damages to the plant’s base and root system. The year-round soil temperature recordings showed that at depths of 20 cm and 40 cm, the soil temperatures under snow cover remained above zero even during the heavy frost of -30°C. Consequently, the 40 cm planting depth is also safe in cool climate vineyards.
Karin Wendin, Ph.D., Professor Food and Meal Science, Kristianstad University, Sweden
Wine tasting is popular in many countries. It is a way to learn about history, culture and grape varieties as well as to learn about perception. For many consumers it is a way to realize that not only tastes and flavours matter, but also appearance and texture/body of the wine are of importance for the wine experience. Also context and familiarity are parts of the experience. There are different ways of assessing sensory experience of wine. The aim of this presentation is to present, discuss and reflect upon this.
Three groups of assessors are presented and discussed:
- Wine experts
- Analytical sensory panelists
Wine experts who are skilled in recognition and identification of grape varieties, terroir and wine makers. Analytical sensory panels who’s expertise is to identify, distinguish and evaluate sensory properties of wine. Finally, consumers who consume the wine in specific contexts, eg with food or as appetizer. The assessment is often connected to liking and/or preference. Further, it has to be taken into account that wine is not only assessed due to its sensory properties but also due to its price, ecology, origin etc.
Different assessing methods and approaches are discussed along with the presentation of different assessor groups. An overview of objective and subjective assessments as well qualitative and quantitative methods is given. Further temporal perception of wine assessments is mentioned and put into a wine tasting context.
K Felix G Åhrberg, Oenolog & Vitikulturist, Kullabergs wineyard, Sweden
Soft Pruning – Minimizing the size of the wounds inflicted by pruning is a key factor to establishinga vineyard with longevity. Uphold a healty production and higher the efficiency through stream lining this essential step.
Kimberly Nicolas, Ph.D., Kenote Speaker, Centre for Sustainability Studies, Lund University, Sweden
Mark Hart, Grape breeder, Mt. Ashwaby Vineyard & Orchard, Wisconsin, USA
Mark Hart has over 25 years of experience growing grapes in northern states. His main focus has been grape breeding and viticultural research. Research projects have involved grape variety trials, grapevine physiology and genetics. Grape growing and breeding activities take place on the south shore of Lake Superior in northern Wisconsin. Summers at this location are quite cool (1050 GDD 10C) and the season is short. The primary focus of Mark’s breeding effort is to develop varieties that can ripen in very cool or short seasons and produce a high quality wine; while retaining sufficient disease resistance, productivity and winter hardiness.
Maryam Ehsani, Ph.D., Export Area Manager for North and Central Europe, Laffort, France
Dr. Maryam Ehsani is currently Export Area Manager for North and Central Europe at the company Laffort. She has an engineering degree in Food Technology, and is specialized in Fermentation Technology, from the National Institute of Applied Sciences in Toulouse (INSA), France.
After receiving a PhD degree in Applied Wine Microbiology from the National Institute of Agronomic Research (INRA) in Montpellier (France), she left for South America to practice winemaking in cellars in both Chile and Argentina. She started working at Laffort in Bordeaux in 2009, as Fermentation Group Manager, in charge of research and development projects, product development, scientific and technical support and marketing at international level.
She has participated to the writing of the book on enological aids and practices Produits de traitement et auxiliaires d’élaboration des moûts et des vins (2nd Edition, Féret Edition, supervised by Nicoals Vivas and Virginie Moine) published in 2015.
Over the last 3 years, she has, among others, been providing technical aid and trainee sessions on various winemaking processes and phenomena together with recommendations on global enological product usage in cellars in several European countries.
Shaping the organoleptic quality of wines is among others related to the phenolic compounds management. Specific phenolic compounds such as caftaric and caffeic acids and catechin and epicatechin can negatively impact the colour and the aromatic quality of wines in presence of oxygen. In addition, they can alter the aging potential of wines by interacting and neutralising the protective compound glutathione. The use of protein based fining agents is an important asset in winemaking for preventing aromas oxidation and browning of colour. Fining also leads to reduced astringency and bitterness sensations. No fining agent is universal. Today, there is a multitude of fining products available on the market for different technical purposes. As consumer demands goes towards allergen free and vegetarian and vegan products, one of the major challenges has been to identify alternative fining agents to the traditional casein and gelatine-based products.
Application of proteins derived from wheat and peas has been authorised for use in winemaking by the European Union since 2006. To date there are no commercial products containing wheat proteins (due to the risk of gluten allergy), however several products containing pea proteins do exist.
In 2009, Laffort’s R&D department, Biolaffort, initiated the evaluation of patatin (a protein derived from potatoes) in winemaking. Its use was authorised in 2013 by the European Union and it presents two major benefits in winemaking:
– It does not require labelling as a potential allergen (substitute for casein).
– The wine can be marketed as suitable for vegetarians and vegans (substitute for gelatine).
This presentation describes the fining phenomena, the general benefits of fining and the recent tools for fining agent characterisation. It also reports on results obtained with patatin in juice and wine over the past years.
Mihaela Mihnea, PhD, RISE, Sweden
Mihaela Mihnea is the senior scientist, responsible of the Sensory Area at Product Design and Perception at RISE. She graduated as Food Chemistry Engineer in 2006 at the University of “Dunãrea de Jos” from Galaţi in Romania. She holds a Master’s degree in “Food Safety and Biotechnology” as well as an international PhD in “Advances in Food Science and Biotechnology” by the University of Burgos in Spain.
During her PhD she focused on studying pre-fermentative techniques to reduce alcohol degree in wine and to enhance phenolic and aromatic profiles of the wines. In 2009 she started working on sensory field, having her main focus on wine.
Astringency is often difficult to evaluate accurately in wine because of its complexity. Accuracy can improve through training sessions that can be time consuming and expensive. A way to reduce these costs can be the use of wine experts, who are known as reliable evaluators. Therefore, the aim of this work was to compare the performance and sensory results obtained using trained panelists and experts (winemakers). Judges evaluated twelve red wines for in-mouth basic perception, following the same tasting protocol and with the samples being presented in two different tasting modalities. Panels’ performance and relationship between the chemical composition and the sensory perception were investigated. Both panels had similar consistency and repeatability and were able to accurately measure the astringency of the wines. However, winemakers tended to discriminate better between the samples when the differences were very small for the rest of the evaluated attributes. The significant correlations between sensory scores and chemical composition varied with the panel and the tasting modality. Caution should be taken when choosing a panel and tasting modality for these types of experiments.
Mikael Agerlin Petersen, Ph.D. coordinator, Copenhagen University, Denmark
In this study, the effect of the timing of SO2 addition (before or after fermentation) and amount of SO2 added (high/control/low/zero) on volatiles and sensory quality of Danish Solaris wine was investigated. The wines were produced from Solaris grapes harvested at University of Copenhagen’s experimental orchard ‘Pometet’. After fermentation and bottling the wines were stored for one year before undergoing sensory evaluation and analysis of content of volatiles. All sensory descriptors were affected by SO2 addition as well as the content of several important aroma compounds.
Mikael Mölstad, Wine and Food Journalist, Sweden
Looking back at the short history of wine production in the nordic countries: what are the experiences of trial and error of different wine styles? What have we learnt and where are we heading? Which wine styles is the future success –considering the limits of cultivation and market interest locally and nationally as a part of the experience economy.
Mischa Billing, Sommelière and Senior Lecturer in Culinary Art and Meal Science, Örebro University, Sweden
Nils Arneborg, Researcher, Copenhagen University, Denmark
Nowadays, there is still a plethora of unexplored habitats from which yeasts can be isolated and used for e.g. new fermented alcoholic beverages. To illustrate this, data will be presented giving insight into the indigenous yeast ecology of Danish grapes and apples. Furthermore, the potential of using some of these yeast isolates as starter cultures for controlled production of new grape and apple wines will be shown.
Paul Becher, Associate professor in Chemical Ecology, Swedish university of agriculture, Sweden
Paul is a researcher and chemical ecologist working at SLU. His research focus is on insect-microbe interactions and control of horticultural pests. A current goal is to develop sustainable, semiochemical-based control methods targeting the spotted wing Drosophila, Drosophila suzukii.
Vineries are habitats for a number of Drosophila fly species. Depending on species, abundance and behavior they appear to humans as harmless commensals, nuisance or pests. Interested in insect chemical ecology and horticulture we study chemical communication and odour attraction behavior in Drosophila flies. The vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster is a human commensal that since thousands of years is associated with human culture.
Interestingly, humans and vinegar flies share some vocabulary of a common chemical language, which is demonstrated in shared preference for odours emitted by grapes, yeast and wine as well as a high sensitivity to fly pheromone and the microbial off-flavor geosmin.
A new inhabitant of European and American vineyards is the spotted wing Drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii, an invasive pest on soft-skinned fruit. In contrast to D. melanogaster, SWD not only is attracted to fermenting fruit but also to unripe fruit causing problems in grapevine close to harvest. Understanding fly behavior and ecology is the basis for the development of sustainable control methods against D. suzukii. I will present how discoveries in the D. melanogaster model drive the development of control methods targeting the D. suzukii pest.
Paulina Rytkönen, Ph.D., Adjoin professor, Södertörn University, Sweden
Although Sweden only recently became a wine producing country, the Swedish relation with wine has long historical roots. In traditional society, wine was imported and consumed both as communion wine after that Sweden had become a Christian country, but also as an exclusive beverage for the nobility and upper classes. Historically, wine consumption was limited but it certainly made a mark on society, for example by the emergence of specific trades such as “vindragarna” (wine pullers), a profession which already in the 15th Century became an organized guild. They carried the wine from the ships, transported it into the city cellars where they processed the wine by pumping it from barrel to barrel until the sediment at the bottom was filtered, making the wine ready to be sold. In Swedish this was called “draga”. Wine also made its mark through cultural expressions, for instance in paintings and not the least in songs, of which the most famous are the still much appreciated poet, singer and composer Michael Bellman.
But it was well into the 20th Century when wine became accessible and consumed by the wide masses and only in the last 28 years when there have been organized and professional efforts to produce wine. The history of wine in Sweden, from a luxury item for the privileged into becoming massively consumed and even making the effort to become a wine producing country and ultimately also the potential success of failure of this new industry, is tightly connected to alcohol governance models, consumption patterns and not the least 20th Century globalization.
The contemporary history of alcohol and thereby also of wines in Sweden can be divided into three distinctive periods in which different governance models have made their impact on production and consumption. The first period between 1855 and 1955 was characterized by gradual control, the monopolization (by the state) of the production, distribution and sales of alcohol and the adoption of the ration book. During this period fortified wines became a substitute for spirits, but slowly wine became consumed by the emerging middle class (i.e. engineers, clerks, etc.) who wanted to differentiate themselves from the blue-collar workers. The second period between 1955 and1994 was characterized by modernization of alcohol production and sales and a more refined and targeted control of people with alcohol problems. During this period the trend of increasing consumption of wine, which had started already in the 1930’s and which was temporarily slowed down by the war, contributed to a rapid rise of wine consumption during the end of the 1940’s. After 1958 the pro-wine trend accelerated as the state started to promote wine consumption to create a shift from consumption of strong spirits to wine – this shift was achieved in 1976. The final and third period from 1995 until today is characterized by partial liberalization. Some of the more important features of this current period is the abolition of production and distribution monopoly, which enabled the emergence of Swedish wine production.
Richard Smart, Ph.D., “The flying vine-doctor” Smart Viticulture, UK
Glass jar cloches were used in Victorian England for vegetables etc, and glasshouses or glass and wood structures subsequently for table and winegrapes. The UK vineyards now grow in mostly maritime climates with non-freezing winters but with low daytime temperatures and frequent rainfall and cloud cover, occasionally spring frost. Spring growth is slow, and harvest can extend into November. Major problems are low yield and lack of maturity, although perhaps the climate is well suited for sparkling wine production. Poor fruit set and concomitant low seed number/berry weight cause low bunch weights and uneconomic yields. Further, there is excessive vegetative growth which combined with simple VSP trellis leads to shade problems on yield and quality.
Removable plastic film cloches attached on each canopy side and covering fruit and most leaves relieves this problem. Results will be presented for experiments with Pinot Noir which reveal the following benefits:
- Warmer temperatures up to 6⁰ C when sunny;
- Less need for fungal sprays due to rain cover;
- Improved fruit set and bunch weight;
- Earlier maturity by up to 3 weeks with lower acidity.
Results will be shown of shoot growth and phenology changes due to cloches, and also comparisons of temperature and humidity with and without cloches.
Cloches can be mounted on trellis posts and modern plastics can have a life of five years, making their use economical considering initial cost, installation and annual occasional removal for spraying. Cloches provide opportunities for extending viticulture pole-wards.
Sibylle Kruger-Weber, Ph.D., R&D Bacteria, Lallemand, Germany
Focusing on the difficulties in high malic acid wines, Sibylle will introduce new alternatives for partial malolactic degradation and some strong candidates that adapt well to cool climate conditions.
Sigrid Gertsen-Schibbye, Technical Support and Area Manager for Lallemand in Scandinavia and the UK
Sigrid has a degree in Microbiology from McGill University in Montréal, and started her fermentation career in a quality control lab of Mosti Mondiale, a kit and fresh juice supplier. She then worked at Pelee Island Winery before joining Lallemand in 2001.
As Lallemand continues to delve into what makes better nutrition for our yeast, new R&D results will be shared for the timing and types of nutrition which can be used to promote the aromatic profile of the wine.
Sofie Sarens, Ph.D., Christian Hansen, Denmark
Sofie Saerens has a PhD (2007) in Bioscience Engineering from KULeuven, Belgium. Passionate about yeast, she did an industrial postdoc in 2007 (Lab for Molecular Cell Biology) and in 2009 (Lab for Systems Biology), VIB, Leuven to develop tailor-made yeast for the food and beverage industry.
In 2011, Sofie moved to Denmark to join the Wine Department at Chr Hansen A/S as Application Manager. Currently, she is Team Leader for Fermented Beverages, responsible for new business & product development within the fermented beverage industry with a focus on yeast and bacterial technologies.
All over the world, consumers and regulatory bodies have an increased focus on allergens and toxins in wine, due to negative health effect of histamine, mycotoxins and SO2 which is added to wine to protect it against unwanted microorganisms. However, these compounds may cause an allergic reaction in sensitive individuals. Hence wine producers are looking to follow the consumer trend by offering healthier and clean wines without faults and unwanted flavor/aroma. This has become easier now with the introduction of microbial bioprotective solutions.
Chr Hansen A/S offers both pre-fermentative yeast as well as bacterial solutions to bio-protect your wines. The use of microorganisms as a bioprotective tool against unwanted organisms is a completely new technology. This presentation will therefore give a good insight on how to be competitive on the current wine world market by using the new microbial tools to produce clean and healthy wines.
Sören Balling, Professor, Copenhagen University, Denmark
Professor Søren Balling Engelsen is professor in Plant Food Science at University of Copenhagen and head of the section for Chemometrics & Analytical Technology. His primary research topic is development and application of high-throughput quantitative spectroscopic methods (NIR, IR, Raman and NMR) for biological samples in quality control, process analytical technology, foodomics and metabolomics.
Metabolomics is largely based on the assessment of intact biological samples (human biofluids, plant tissues, foods, etc..) by advanced analytical platforms such as Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and liquid/gas chromatography (GC/LC) combined with mass spectrometry (MS). This methodology can help answering questions that lie beyond the powers of upstream genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics, and facilitate an understanding of and assessment of the phenotype. However, metabolomics technology is also well adapted for studying food products such as beverages and as a tool for optimizing and controlling fermentation processes such as the grape to wine process. Today, hyper-sensitive and highly complex analytical instruments have become available for conducting metabolomics research and metabolomics research often goes hand in hand with new developments in advanced multivariate data analysis (chemometrics) for exploration and extraction of information from metabolomics data sets .
This paper will demonstrate the application of 1H NMR metabolomics to cool climate wines grown in Denmark in 2016  and seek to provide an overview of the chemistry of the wines made from 26 grape varieties.
Steve-John Charters MW, Ph.D., Keynote speaker, Professor at Burgundy school of Business Dijon, The school of Wine and Spirits Business, France
Stig Holmskär, grapegrower, Sweden
Vine grower and made wine since the beginning of the eighties. Join several wine and beer tasting groups and do some ‘hobby’ wine writing. Member of the Swedish Wine Grower Association and the Latvian Wine Grower Association (now extended to cover the Baltic countries Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania) wine judge panels.
Some summary and thoughts about work on Organic Farming made by Jairo Restrepo Rivera, a Colombian agricultural engineer specialised in organic farming. Jairo Restrepo is somewhat provoking as he want to trigger critical thinking. He is a man of strong opinion but is at the same time humble and seems to live as he teaches to a high degree.
He is famous for his work in environmental protection, soil analysis, recycling and sustainable development. He has held more than 750 lectures and more than 700 practical courses in Latin-America, Europe, Africa and Australia. He has also published 16 books.
He teaches on useful techniques which contribute to a fertile and productive soil without chemicals and how to make Bokashi, Biological fertiliser, Stone flour for combating agricultural pest and Ormus from seawater.
“Jairo Restrepo is a leading champion of organic farming in Brazil, writes JuanFran Lopez, and now his influence have spread across the world. His mission too has expanded to include campaigning for the rights of small scale farmers, and an even wider project of economic, technological and societal transformation to put people at the centre of political power.
A passionate educator and activist in sustainable agriculture and food sovereignty, Jairo Restrepo campaigns for a return of self determination, knowledge and autonomy to the farmer away from the power of agribusiness.
His background is in Latin America including Cuba, where his philosophy has been hugely influential in helping to build that country’s agroecological movement.”
Sveneric Svensson, Ph.D., Chairman, The Swedish wine association, Sweden
Born 1953, trained as laboratory technician and later as a surgeon. Hold a Ph.D. in medicine. Grow and make wine for a hobby and run a small laboratory to serve other winemakers with most frequent analyses. Chairman of the Swedish Wine organization.
Sufficient amount of yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) is well known to be important to avoid hydrogen sulphide in wine. Standard or maximal nitrogen supplementation to must is however not the solution since excess of nitrogen has been demonstrated also to negatively affect wine quality. With analysis of YAN in clarified must the winemaker can make an informed decision on how much nitrogen the must should be supplemented with to achieve just enough of nutrition for the yeast. Must, clarified with centrifugation from Swedish Solaris and Rondo grapes were analyses for the content of organic and inorganic nitrogen using enzymatic method analysed with CDR wine lab touch spectrophotometer. Solaris musts demonstrated a considerable variation of organic YAN levels (56 – 299 mg/L) Rondo musts were generally higher in organic YAN (116 – 305 mg/L). In most cases levels of inorganic YAN was below the threshold of the method (30 mg/L). Most musts needed supplementation of nitrogen in various degree despite generally low sugar levels due to the poor season 2017. However, a few musts had more nutrition than needed. This study confirms that YAN levels in grape must cannot be predicted. To obtain correct levels of nutrition for an optimal fermentation analysis of YAN in clarified must is feasible and helpful.
Tomas Adner, Caliente, Managing Director, Sweden
Thomas Adner is the Founder and CEO of Caliente Beverages who is responding to the need for non-alcoholic premium drinks, that are both fun and healthy. The organic juice drink with chili heat, Caliente, was launched Q2 2015 and has since got good commercial traction in Sweden, won a number of international awards and is now underway for an international expansion in Europe and beyond.
Thomas started his career with Procter & Gamble Scandinavia in the early 1990s, in brand management of Clearasil, followed by a move to sales and key account management for the largest retailer in Sweden.
There is a strong trend towards non-alcoholic through-out the western world. More and more people are drinking less and less. This is in many countries most evident among the millennials. As a result, we see a strong growth in non-alcoholic drinks, soft drinks and non-alcoholic beer and wine.
However, leading trend spotters believe there is still a huge unmet need, that would require totally new drinks. Drinks with new and challenging flavors, not driven by sweetness and not perceived as a copy of something else. The non-alcoholic consumer also has higher expectations on quality, naturalness and wants a crafted product.
Caliente fits into this new category. It is not a soft drink and it is not a non-alcoholic copy of something. We have chosen chili heat as the main differentiator, because it makes Caliente sip friendly (you drink it slower) and a bit challenging. The sensation and kick actually resemble that you get from alcohol, and it goes surprisingly great with food. We launched in 2015 and have learned a lot about the opportunities and challenges to launch some really new into the adult non-alcoholic segment.
Tommy Nylander, Professor in Analytical Chemistry, Lund University, Sweden
Phenolic compounds are widely present in a range of food products. Grape phenolics, or more often known as tannins, have large variability both in terms of chemistry, structure and physicochemical properties such as aggregation. Their presence in wine, besides conferring this drink with its desired taste and colour, can give rise to astringency. The astringency sensation can be described as mouth dryness and have been considered to be due to precipitation of tannins or tannin-protein complexes. Wine production in the Scandinavian climate involves a number of substantial climate challenges that affect the maturation of the wine. This may result in tart wines that are high in acid, low in alcohol and with a suboptimal fruit character tainted by a “green” herbaceousness. The latter has been associated with the occurrence of so-called green tannins. In this study we have therefore investigated the interactions between tannins dissolved in water-ethanol solutions of different compositions, and corresponding colloidal stability over time, using UV-Vis spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering, in three Pinot Noir tanninic samples isolated from both French and Swedish wines. Different solvent mixtures gave rise to distinctive aggregation behaviour, both in freshly prepared dispersions and with time. In addition, both UV-Vis spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy was used to reveal the tannin induced precipitation of a model protein. The results of these studies will be discussed in terms of the chemical composition of the wine.
Tony Milanowski, Winemaking lecturer, WineSkills Extension Programme Manager, Wine Division, Plumpton College, UK
Vitis vinifera cultivar Bacchus, a (Silvaner x Riesling) x Müller-Thurgau cross, is the most widely planted cv. for making still wine in the UK. Bacchus, a white grape, is suited to cool-climates where it generally yields well with good sugar levels and moderate acidity. Flavour profiles of Bacchus wines are characterised by the presence of both terpenes and thiols. Using techniques adapted for Sauvignon blanc and Riesling there are a wide range of opportunities during winemaking to modify wine composition and style. This project has identified, for the first time, key flavour compounds in the grape that affect wine composition and wine style, including α- terpineol, geraniol, linalool, hotrienol, 4- mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one, 3-mercaptohexen-1-ol and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate. Furthermore, the impact of winemaking options including pre-ferment maceration, yeast strain, ferment temperature and exogenous enzymes on these compounds and their expression in Bacchus wine have been described. Wines were enhanced by maceration, with; higher juice yield, increased yeast assimilable nitrogen, increased polysaccharides and increased pH coupled with decreased acidity. Manipulating ferment conditions increased thiol and terpene levels, while the employment of exogenous enzymes improved terpene levels. Taken together, these results show that careful consideration and application of a range of winemaking techniques can produce high quality cool-climate Bacchus wine.
Torben Selberg, Product Manager, FOSS, Denmark
He is Product Manager of the Foss Wine portfolio (WineScan, WineScan SO2 and OenoFoss ). He has obtained the Diplôme Nationale d’Oenologue from the University of Bordeaux and he holds a MS in Horticulture from the The Royal Veterinary and Agricutural University of Copenhagen. Further he has studied Getränketechnologie at the Technische Univesität, Berlin.
This presentation outlines the use of mid-infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometric data modelling using classical least square analysis (CLS) and partial least square (PLS) analysis.
Wine samples are scanned on a Foss wine instrument (WineScan, WineScan SO2 or OenoFoss) and analysed by classical reference method for the purpose of calibration development and calibration validation respectively. All samples were sourced from production sites worldwide and split into relevant product types (grape juice, Must under Fermentation and Finished Wine).
The spectroscopy analysis methods have obvious advantages in regards to speed and reduced samples preparation. On the other hand there are limits in regards to the accuracy of the results on some parameters. The pro’s and con’s of this is discussed.
Torben Toldam-Andersen, Ph.D., Keynote speaker, Associate Professor in Fruit Science, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Copenhagen University, Scientific head of the Pometum, Denmark
MSc in Horticultural Sciences (1991) and Ph.D. in Pomology (1995), both from The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University (RVAU), Copenhagen. Post doc at Bonn University, Germany (1995-96). Assistant Professor (1996-1997) at RVAU. Associate professor 1998- at RVAU, which today has merged into Copenhagen University.
The talk will analyze the key factors determining the wine potential of the Nordic wine region. If a successful transition of the Nordic wine region from a young emerging wine region to a professional and recognized established commercial wine region the industry needs to be able to fulfill a number of criteria’s. First, commercial yields need to be reached with at a reasonable year to year variation. The work with canopy management and cultivars are reviewed, and the importance of key yield components illustrated. Secondly, the achieved fruit quality and thereby the wine quality potential, also need to be at a high enough level to match the commercial quality in the international marked. Data on fruit quality and important quality components are reviewed. Finally, the winemaking skills need to be able to explore and transform the potential juice quality into regional district wines and wine styles. Examples of cultivar specific development of wine styles are presented, based on the work done at Pometet.
Ulf Sjödin, Head of Assortment, Assortment & Purchasing Department, Systembolaget, Sweden
There are a few retail monopolies for wine in the world, most notably in Scandinavia and North America. After a short overview of the alcohol monopolies, the speech will focus on the largest of them, the Swedish Systembolaget and its purchasing process. The sales of locally produced wines, where sales have increased by more than 350 % in the past five years, will be discussed in detail.
Vassileios Varelas, Ph.D., Wine and Vine Consultant, Sweden
Dr. Vassileios Varelas is an oenologist and agricultural engineer. He holds a PhD in Chemistry (University of Athens), a MSc. in Oenology and a MSc. and BSc. (integrated master, 5 year course) in Agricultural Engineering and Biotechnology (Agricultural University of Athens).
Vassileios is interesting for the development of wine and vine sector in Sweden and Scandinavia as an emerging wine producing region. He is working as a professional wine, vine and sustainability consultant and researcher.
His fields of expertise are green chemistry and sustainability, yeast and microbial fermentations, vine management and wine production. Vassileios has worked in SLU University in Sweden as a postdoctoral researcher and in Greece in various wineries as oenologist and viticulturist consultant.
The modern viticulture and oenology are mainly based on the traditional cultivation practices, wine making technologies and techniques. Recent years, the need for sustainable wine production seems more and more imperative due to economic, environmental and social issues and changes. For this reason, various wine producing countries and regions have adopted the philosophy for a sustainable wine production and have developed new strategies and technologies in order to fulfil the criteria for a sustainable viticulture and oenology.
These practices are guided by research, educational seminars and sustainable winegrowing workbooks and lead to a proper label which the certified sustainable wineries use on the produced wines.
The parameters affecting the sustainable winegrowing are numerous and a certified sustainable program must be set on a right basis from the beginning. A plan for a sustainable wine in new wine rising countries, like Scandinavian, could promote and establish a green and sustainable wine sector oriented towards the new climate and environmental challenges. Moreover, a Nordic wine certified sustainable label could act as a management tool for the promotion of wine tourism in Scandinavia.
Wayne Wilcox, Ph.D., Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station NY, USA
Efficient, strategic management of grapevine diseases is guided by an understanding of factors that impact the biology of both the pathogen (environmental variables, temporal periods of activity, cultural practices that favor or disrupt) and the host (variable susceptibility based upon inherent genetics, phenological development stage, nutrition, and environmental variables). The activities of fungicides employed as management tools should be understood as well (e.g., surface protectant, systemic curative, surface eradicant, host resistance induction). For example, powdery mildew (PM) is unique in that the causal fungus (Erysiphe necator) colonizes almost entirely upon the surface of infected tissues. Thus, it is severely inhibited by the ultraviolet radiation of direct sunlight, so pruning/training systems that provide good sunlight exposure reduce PM development significantly. Similarly, many products (e.g., potassium salts, oils, sulfur) control PM but not other diseases, whose causal fungi colonize within the infected tissues. Grape berries are highly susceptible to black rot (Guignardia bidwellii), downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola), and PM for only a few weeks after flowering, and concentrating spray programs during this period is the key to controlling them on fruit. Phomopsis viticola expands into berries from pedicel infections, so controlling these and rachis infections early (3-4 weeks pre-flowering) is key to avoiding economic losses. Botrytis bunch rot (B. cinerea) epidemics can result from the post-veraison activation, and subsequent spread, of latent infections initiated at flowering. Activation is promoted by high relative humidity, high plant water content, and high berry nitrogen levels; spread is promoted by high berry nitrogen and tightly compacted clusters. Counteracting these factors improves control. Although many biorational products are inadequate in high pressure conditions, they can be effective in combination with targeted cultural practices and/or partially-resistant cultivars. The resistance-inducing bacterium, Bacillus mycoides, has provided excellent control of both downy and powdery mildews on highly-susceptible cultivars in high-pressure conditions.
Zachory Brierley, Dyrehøj Vingaard, Denmark
A summary of the current identity, production and business challenges in the emerging Danish wine industry. With no historical wine style or identity, a key challenge for Denmark is the development of a unique wine style. As a cold climate region, production challenges all relate back to fruit yield and ripeness. Both identity and production challenges interlink with business considerations such as consumer expectations, reputation, profitability and sustainability.